easter island statues name

There are many moai statues that fell during transportation to their ahu.

He was unable to elicit a Polynesian name for the island and concluded that there may not have been one.

According to Diamond and Heyerdahl's version of the island's history, the huri mo'ai—"statue-toppling"—continued into the 1830s as a part of fierce internal wars.

Studies have shown fractures along the bases of the statues in transport; these could have arisen from rocking the statue back and forth and placing great pressures on the edges.

Nearly half remained in the quarry at Rano Raraku, and the rest sat elsewhere, presumably on their way to intended locations. [citation needed]. New Feature: Print Any Seterra Map to PDF! Each statue represented the deceased head of a lineage. There are around 1000 statues, up to 86 tons tons in weight and 10 m in height, though average is around half of that.

The biggest ahu is 220 metres (720 ft) and holds 15 statues, some of which are 9 metres (30 ft) high. While this helps explain how the statues were moved around the island, it doesn’t explain why. Jakob Roggeveen reported that Easter Island was exceptionally fertile. They point out in their book, "The Statues that Walked" (Free Press, 2011) that abundant rocks on the island allowed for the construction of stone-protected gardens known as “manavai.” These stone gardens would have been supported by lithic mulching, a process by which minerals from rocks fertilize the soil. Peiser claims that these reports indicate that large trees existed at that time, which is perhaps contradicted by the Bouman quote above.

[citation needed] Before the arrival of humans, Easter Island had vast seabird colonies containing probably over 30 resident species, perhaps the world's richest. West wrote, "Sometime before the arrival of Europeans on Easter Island, the Rapanui experienced a tremendous upheaval in their social system brought about by a change in their island's ecology... By the time of European arrival in 1722, the island's population had dropped to 2,000–3,000 from a high of approximately 15,000 just a century earlier. [91][92][93] This might have been managed by as few as 15 people, supported by the following evidence: There is debate regarding the effects of the monument creation process on the environment.

In the following years, the managers of the sheep ranch and the missionaries started buying the newly available lands of the deceased, and this led to great confrontations between natives and settlers. Under the Köppen climate classification, the climate of Easter Island is classified as a tropical rainforest climate (Af) that borders on a humid subtropical climate (Cfa). I found, on the contrary, a considerable population, with more beauty and grace than I afterwards met in any other island; and a soil, which, with very little labor, furnished excellent provisions, and in an abundance more than sufficient for the consumption of the inhabitants.

Hotu's heir, Tu'u ma Heke, was born on the island. O te korohu'a ko Huhu Kahu i vānaŋa ai ki tō'oku matu'a poreko: To put the hats on top of the head of the moais, men would pile rocks and pushed the hat over the piled rocks until it reached the head.

Petroglyphs representing Bird Men on Easter Island are the same as some in Hawaii, indicating that this concept was probably brought by the original settlers; only the competition itself was unique to Easter Island. One ahu with several moai was recorded on the cliffs at Rano Kau in the 1880s but had fallen to the beach before the Routledge expedition. He notes that they stopped making statues at that time and started destroying the ahu.

"Fowls are the only animals they keep. Please activate JavaScript for this site to function properly. Felipe González de Ahedo named it Isla de San Carlos ("Saint Charles' Island", the patron saint of Charles III of Spain) or Isla de David (probably the phantom island of Davis Land; sometimes translated as "Davis's Island"[17]) in 1770. In 1995, UNESCO named Easter Island a World Heritage Site, with much of the island protected within Rapa Nui National Park. Below the Rano Aroi lake, in front of the Rano Raraku quarry that is seen from afar, is located the “central” ahu, the small ahu Vaipu or ahu Ava Ranga Uka.

The Maunga Orito obsidian was used to make the "mataa" spearheads. Some were documented standing upright along the old roads, e.g., by a party from Captain Cook's voyage that rested in the shade of a standing statue. Why construction was abandoned is another mystery. Ongoing archaeological studies provide this late date: "Radiocarbon dates for the earliest stratigraphic layers at Anakena, Easter Island, and analysis of previous radiocarbon dates imply that the island was colonized late, about 1200 AD. It is the easternmost outpost of the Polynesian island world.

[70] Potential breeding areas for fin whales have been detected off northeast of the island as well.[71]. The Rapanui sponsor an annual festival, the Tapati, held since 1975 around the beginning of February to celebrate Rapa Nui culture. For example, he states, to severely insult an enemy one would say, "The flesh of your mother sticks between my teeth."

As of 2011[update] a special charter for the island was under discussion in the Chilean Congress. [3] Barbara A. Most of them were built near the sea, but there are also 25 relatively big ahu in the inner part of the island, like the Akivi ahu or the Uri a Uranga ahu. Easter Island is most famous for its nearly 1,000 extant monumental statues, called moai, created by the early Rapa Nui people. The island is dominated by hawaiite and basalt flows which are rich in iron and show affinity with igneous rocks found in the Galápagos Islands. [96], In 2020, a pickup truck crashed into and destroyed a moai statue due to brake failure. “The evidence on the ground revealed that roads were not part of some overall planned network. The largest moai raised on a platform is known as "Paro". [19], The Easter Islanders are considered to be South-East Polynesians.

[3] They created a thriving and industrious culture, as evidenced by the island's numerous enormous stone moai and other artifacts. Famine followed the burning of huts and the destruction of fields.

", "NG Live! For this reason, most Rapa Nui children now grow up speaking Spanish, and those who do learn Rapa Nui begin learning it later in life. Some moai may have been made from wood and were lost. In the case of Rapa Nui, recovered plant seed shells showed markings of being gnawed on by rats. [84] Although often identified as "Easter Island heads", the statues have torsos, most of them ending at the top of the thighs; a small number are complete figures that kneel on bent knees with their hands over their stomachs. When the slave raiders were forced to repatriate the people they had kidnapped, carriers of smallpox disembarked together with a few survivors on each of the islands. [115], Easter Island's indigenous Rapa Nui toponymy has survived with few Spanish additions or replacements, a fact that has been attributed in part to the survival of the Rapa Nui language.[119]. A new style of art from this period shows people with exposed ribs and distended bellies, indicative of malnutrition, and it is around this time that many islanders moved to living in fortified caves and the first signs of warfare and cannibalism appear. Sediment samples document that up to half of the native plants had become extinct and that the vegetation of the island drastically altered.

Nobody knows with certainty the exact role of this ceremonial place, though many believe it was used by the island’s astronomists. Chile, the closest South American country, is located about 2,300 miles (3,700 km) to the east. [56], Poike formed from tholeiitic to alkali basalts from 0.78 to 0.41 Ma. This was called. Below are three different accounts that tell how the moai hats were put in place on top of the statues. The island still had smaller trees, mainly toromiro, which became extinct in the wild in the 20th century probably because of slow growth and changes in the island's ecosystem. (eds.) Fossil evidence indicates six species of landbirds (two rails, two parrots, one owl, and one heron), all of which have become extinct. The statues on their platforms can be found ringing almost the entire coast of the island. The filling of an ahu was sourced locally (apart from broken, old moai, fragments of which have been used in the fill). In addition, volcanic tuffs were deposited in the volcanic crater, which is the primary stone used for carving the monolithic Moai statues. This would serve to provide a better centre of gravity for transport. This place is accessible through the cannon (Ava Hanga Uka) created by the waters of the Rano Aroi. This movement over the Easter hotspot has resulted in the Easter Seamount Chain, which merges into the Nazca Ridge further to the east. [38] Those who remained were mostly older men. This species had no natural enemies on the island and may have played a major role in deforestation. The island was largely deforested, and it did not have any trees taller than 3 metres (10 feet). He haka uru hai raŋo; he aŋa i te raŋo hai akauve.

The smaller and more ancient statues are similar to the Tiki of the Marquesas and are about 1 meter high; the bigger ones are 21.65 m and weigh approximately 180 tons. [43], Fishers of Rapa Nui have shown their concern of illegal fishing on the island. None were left standing by the time of the arrival of the French missionaries in the 1860s.

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