henry 7

Author of. Philip had been shipwrecked on the English coast, and while Henry's guest, was bullied into an agreement so favourable to England at the expense of the Netherlands that it was dubbed the Malus Intercursus ("evil agreement"). He founded the Tudor dynasty by winning the battle of Bosworth Field in 1485. Many influential Yorkists had been dispossessed and disappointed by the change of regime, and there had been so many reversals of fortune within living memory that the decision of Bosworth did not appear necessarily final. By 1509, Justices of the Peace were key enforcers of law and order for Henry VII. Although supported by Lancastrians and Yorkists alienated by Richard III's deposition of his nephew, Edward V, Henry VII's first task was to secure his position. 1. [13] When Edward IV became King in 1461, Jasper Tudor went into exile abroad. Another son, Henry's great-grandfather, became a butler to the Bishop of Bangor. Wales was historically a Lancastrian stronghold, and Henry owed the support he gathered to his Welsh birth and ancestry, being directly descended, through his father, from Rhys ap Gruffydd. [36], Unlike his predecessors, Henry VII came to the throne without personal experience in estate management or financial administration.

After obtaining the dispensation, Henry had second thoughts about the marriage of his son and Catherine. Henry, recognizing that Simnel had been a mere dupe, employed him in the royal kitchens. The marriage did not take place during his lifetime. The Treaty of Redon was signed in February 1489 between Henry and representatives of Brittany.

The king was buried alongside his queen in Westminster Abbey, and their tomb was eventually encased in bronzesculpted by Pietro Torrigiano. The marriage unified the warring houses and gave his children a strong claim to the throne. Philip died shortly after the negotiations.[51]. Its restoration by the Magnus Intercursus was very much to England's benefit in removing taxation for English merchants and significantly increasing England's wealth. Born: 28 January 1457 Pembroke Castle, Wales. Henry was handed over and escorted to the Breton port of Saint-Malo. [39] Royal government was also reformed with the introduction of the King's Council, which kept the nobility in check. Henry spent money shrewdly and left a full treasury on his death in 1509, he was succeeded by his son, Henry VIII. Henry's most successful diplomatic achievement as regards the economy was the Magnus Intercursus ("great agreement") of 1496. In 1456, Henry's father Edmund Tudor was captured while fighting for Henry VI in South Wales against the Yorkists. In addition, Henry had Parliament repeal Titulus Regius, the statute that declared Edward IV's marriage invalid and his children illegitimate, thus legitimising his wife. Omissions? [4] Henry IV's action was of doubtful legality, as the Beauforts were previously legitimised by an Act of Parliament, but it further weakened Henry's claim. Overall, this was a successful area of policy for Henry, both in terms of efficiency and as a method of reducing the corruption endemic within the nobility of the Middle Ages. Although supported by Lancastrians and Yorkists alienated by Richard III's deposition of his nephew, Edward V, Henry VII's first task was to secure his position. Henry showed remarkable clemency to the surviving rebels: he pardoned Kildare and the other Irish nobles, and he made the boy, Simnel, a servant in the royal kitchen where he was in charge of roasting meats on a spit. Stephens, "affords some illustrations of the avaricious and parsimonious character of the king". Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. By this marriage, Henry VII hoped to break the Auld Alliance between Scotland and France. [42], He established the pound avoirdupois as a standard of weight; it later became part of the Imperial[43] and customary systems of units. Yorkist malcontents had strength in the north of England and in Ireland and had a powerful ally in Richard III’s sister Margaret, dowager duchess of Burgundy.

Henry's return to Wales was regarded by some as the fulfilment of a Messianic prophecy. Henry decided to keep Brittany out of French hands, signed an alliance with Spain to that end, and sent 6,000 troops to France.

Henry's main claim to the English throne derived from his mother through the House of Beaufort. He was content to allow the nobles their regional influence if they were loyal to him. After his death, a commission found widespread abuses in the tax collection process. The money so extracted added to the king's personal fortune rather than being used for the stated purpose. "[63][64] Worse still, Henry's older daughter Margaret had previously been betrothed to the King of Scotland, James IV, and within months of her mother's death she had to be escorted to the border by her father: he would never see her again.

In turn, Antwerp became an extremely important trade entrepôt (transshipment port), through which, for example, goods from the Baltic, spices from the east and Italian silks were exchanged for English cloth. Before taking the throne, he was known as Henry Tudor, earl of Richmond. Henry VII (Welsh: Harri Tudur; 28 January 1457 – 21 April 1509) was the King of England and Lord of Ireland from his seizure of the crown on 22 August 1485 to his death. With Elizabeth's death, the possibilities for such family indulgences greatly diminished. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? "Historical Memorials of Westminster Abbey" by Arthur Penryn Stanley (page 281-282): the 1486 rebellion of the Stafford brothers, Cultural depictions of Henry VII of England, "Westminster Abbey website: Coronations, Henry VII and Elizabeth of York", "Calendar of State Papers, Spain: Supplement To Volumes 1 and 2, Queen Katherine; Intended Marriage of King Henry VII To Queen Juana", "Domestic and foreign policy of Henry VII", "Queen Margaret's Arch | York Civic Trust", Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Henry_VII_of_England&oldid=985366446, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2020, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Henry VII's successor as King of England and the first King of Ireland. [26] Henry and Elizabeth were married on 18 January 1486 at Westminster Abbey[citation needed]. He was the first monarch of the House of Tudor. The rebellion was defeated and Lincoln killed at the Battle of Stoke. [67] He was succeeded by his second son, Henry VIII (reigned 1509–47). He took care not to address the baronage or summon Parliament until after his coronation, which took place in Westminster Abbey on 30 October 1485. Up to a point, he succeeded.

Henry VII was succeeded by his second son, Henry VIII. In 1494, Henry embargoed trade (mainly in wool) with the Netherlands in retaliation for Margaret of Burgundy's support for Perkin Warbeck. Updates? Henry VII in seven facts Overshadowed by his son and granddaughter, Henry VIII and Elizabeth I, Henry VII is often an afterthought of Tudor history, and yet without him one of the most famous dynasties in British history would never have existed. Otherwise, at the time of his father's arranging of the marriage to Catherine of Aragon, the future Henry VIII was too young to contract the marriage according to Canon Law and would be ineligible until age fourteen.[56]. At Rennes Cathedral on Christmas Day 1483, Henry pledged to marry Elizabeth of York, the eldest daughter of Edward IV, who was also Edward's heir since the presumed death of her brothers, the Princes in the Tower, King Edward V and his brother Richard of Shrewsbury, Duke of York. [40] According to the contemporary historian Polydore Vergil, simple "greed" underscored the means by which royal control was over-asserted in Henry's final years.

Henry's principal problem was to restore royal authority in a realm recovering from the Wars of the Roses. As his mother was only 14 when he was born and soon married again, Henry was brought up by his uncle Jasper Tudor, earl of Pembroke. Amateur historians Bertram Fields and Sir Clements Markham have claimed that he may have been involved in the murder of the Princes in the Tower, as the repeal of Titulus Regius gave the Princes a stronger claim to the throne than his own. [32], Next, in 1487, Yorkists led by Lincoln rebelled in support of Lambert Simnel, a boy they claimed to be Edward of Warwick, (who was actually a prisoner in the Tower).

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